Natural Diversity & Geography

Nine out of eleven climate zones are present in the span of The Republic of Azerbaijan and due to this the nature is vastly diverse as well. from the deserts, the Caspian sea and forests to the high mountains where rare species of fauna and flora and natural phenomenons are present on many different parks, reservoirs and other locations in the country. Despite Azerbaijan being considered as a warm country, it actually has two open skiing resorts in the winter in the Caucasian region.


The territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan has a rich flora. In relatively large area all kinds of plants that are found in the world, were spread in the republic. About 4500 species of higher, spore-bearing flowering plants combined in 125 groups and 920 sorts. For the total number of species of the flora Azerbaijan is richer than any other Caucasus countries.


The dispersal of fauna in Azerbaijan is influenced by suitable conditions, change of vegetation, and location of water reservoirs. More than a thousand different species of animal can be found in Azerbaijan. Out of them 618 are vertebrate animal species, including 97 species of mammals. 58 species of animals are reptiles (5 species of poisonous snake), 11 species are amphibians, 357 species are birds, and the rest consist of invertebrate animals. There are also over 12 thousand species of insects.


There are two main forms of relief in Azerbaijan: mountains and plains. The biggest geomorphological units the Great Caucasus, Lesser Caucasus, Talysh Mountain surround the Kura-Araz lowland from the north, west and south-east areas. The average altitude in Azerbaijan is 657 m. Bazardyuzy is the highest peak from the sea level – 4466 m, the low point is in the Caspian lowlands – (-28 m). Height amplitude reaches 4466 +28 = 4494m. 

The relief and climate plays an important role in the formation of Azerbaijan’s top-soil. As a result of the influence of these factors soil on the territory of Azerbaijan Republic are located in the vertical zones. Republican soils are of 25 types, and divided into 60 sub-types.

Physical-geographical areas and regions

Physical-geographical region of the Greater Caucasus:

1. Samur –Devechi region,

2. Gonagkend region,

3. Zagatala -Lahij region,

4. Mountainous Shirvan (Shamakhi) region,

5. Gobustan-Absheron region

For further information about the Azerbaijani Environment please see the links below:

Flora and Fauna. Landscape, Caspian Sea, national parks and Relief:

Mud volcanoes and the science between oil and high pressure: